Therefore, a person who has less strict views about their own gender and the gender characteristics of a nontraditional occupation
would be more willing to pursue these nontraditional occupations
than a person who holds views that are more entrenched in societal norms (Dodson & Borders, 2006).
The Women's Bureau offers programs that encourage women to pursue nontraditional occupations
In her research on occupations and sex roles, Williams (1995) discovered that racial issues were integral to fully understand why young men of color chose a nontraditional occupation
. She discovered that in 1980 African-American men and women constituted only seven percent of all nurses and librarians, 11 percent of all elementary teachers, and 19 percent of all social workers.
The similarity between an individual and the career role model may be especially important for women who are interested in Investigative careers because the underrepresentation of women in nontraditional occupations
has been cited as a barrier to women's entry into this field (Basoc & Howe, 1979; Betz, 1994; Betz & Fitzgerald, 1987; Hackett et al., 1989; Nauta et al., 1998).
Those measures are focused on increasing the participation and completion rates of underrepresented gender students in programs that lead to nontraditional occupations
, i.e., those with less than 25 percent of one gender represented in the workforce, such as women in engineering technology and men in nursing.
Two appendixes are added: one lists women's construction associations, while another provides the percentage of women employees currently in each of the nontraditional occupations
Therefore, it is necessary to provide children at this stage with more life experiences and stories or guidance in gender roles, or even to increase chances for children to have contact with people working in nontraditional occupations
(Bailey & Nihlen, 1989).
Numbers of Women in Nontraditional Occupations
and Industries: The Case of the Aerospace and Defense Industry
Studies have found that girls with high self-esteem are more likely to choose nontraditional occupations
(Hartung et al., 2005; Watson & McMahon, 2005).
Both Olszewski and Suarez benefited from the NEW apprenticeship outreach and training program, funded by the Department of Labor's Women in Apprenticeship and Nontraditional Occupations
In addition to highlighting the creativity and important accomplishments of women, this year's symposium focused on the challenges confronting females in nontraditional occupations
, including construction.