It is found that students in G1, who received the intervention of FL and OAHS, had the highest average score in computing skills (mean = 89.
That is, students who simultaneously adopted OAHS and FL had better development of involvement that those did not.
Therefore, the present study adopted online FL and OAHS, and verified their effects on enhancing students' involvement, self-efficacy and self-directed learning in a blended computing course.
Above all, this study reveals the effect of OAHS and FL, and how an instructor improved students' involvement, self-efficacy, and self-directed learning under simulated conditions by applying OAHS and FL.
With respect to the combined effects of OAHS and FL, the authors in this empirical study find support from the analyses presented in Table 3, Table 5, and Table 7.
In this study, it was found that even in a learning environment without teachers' on-site monitoring, students' online learning behavior can be effective with adoption of OAHS in a course.
For example, students who adopted neither OAHS nor FL, in G3, had the significantly lowest self-efficacy among the three groups (see Table 9).
Although it is found that OAHS and FL improved students' involvement, self-efficacy, and self-directed learning in this blended course, some other potential factors may cause bias when evaluating students' learning performance.
Thus, the authors utilized one of the most locally popular communication applications, LINE, and integrated FL and OAHS into an online computing course.