The other factors of OAKOC will help commanders gain a better understanding of their environment and will ultimately aid them in their ability to define what terrain is worth fighting to control.
This involves developing an understanding of the operational environment, to include the cyberspace aspects of that environment, evaluating terrain from an OAKOC perspective, determining critical assets, and identifying terrain that gives the attackers or defenders a marked advantage in relation to achieving their mission objectives.
Terrain analysis in ATP 2-01.3 focuses on micro aspects of geography (OAKOC
) without consideration of the broader geomorphology, climate, and biomes in the area of operations which may vary season to season.
An important aspect of the "terrain" is the population and its infrastructures and organizations and is called "Civilian Considerations" or "Human Terrain." Acronyms such as OAKOC
(or a dozen other arrangements of those letters), PMESII(-PT), ASCOPE, and SWEAT-MS are utilized as tools to help address all of the variables introduced by the environment.
Planners at all levels must be able analyze the military aspect of human terrain to deny the enemy observation and fields of fire, avenues of approach, key and decisive terrain, obstacles, and cover and concealment (OAKOC) in the human terrain.
By making slight adjustments to terrain analysis as outlined in FM 2-01.3 Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield, planners can analyze the human terrain corollaries to OAKOC: active networks, social networks, key leaders, culture, and passive networks.
This characteristic approaches terrain analysis (OAKOC
) from a civilian perspective.
When conducting mission analysis, use a format that he is used to hearing, such as OAKOC
(observation and fields of fire, avenues of approach, key terrain, obstacles, and cover and concealment).
(11) Such an analysis is comparable to the G2's evaluating the battlefield in terms of OAKOC
(obstacles, avenues of approach, key terrain, observation and fields of fire, and concealment and cover).
The analysis of the five military aspects of terrain--obstacles, avenues of approach, key terrain, observation and fields of fire, concealment and cover (OAKOC