To analyze the influence and predictive capacity of the authentic leadership components on the employees' OCBIs and OCBOs, we conducted a multiple regression analysis.
With regard to the employees' OCBs, somewhat higher values than the mid-point of the scale were obtained, with higher values for the OCBIs (M = 2.74, SD = 0.60) than for the OCBOs (M = 2.39, SD = 0.87).
Following Werner (1994), and Williams and Anderson (1991), this study separates organizational citizenship behaviors that benefit the organization in general (OCBO's) from those behaviors benefiting specific individuals (OCBI's).
Following Werner (1994), OCBO was tied toward to level of IRB and only OCBI was manipulated.
Further, following a social exchange framework, we expect that extra-role OCBO behaviours will be more likely to result from procedural justice than from distributive justice.
Thus, in the context of work processes such as work schedules and work assignments, it is more likely that procedural justice will interact with distributive justice to predict an OCBO, than in the context of pay raise decisions.
The two types of OCBs consisted of a six-item loyalty scale representing OCBOs (e.g., "Actively promotes organization's products and services"; Van Dyne et al, 1994), and a five-item helping scale representing OCBIs (e.g., "Helps others who have been absent"; Podsakoff et al., 1990).
This theory guided the classification of the citizenship behaviors into OCBOs and OCBIs.
IMB = impression management behavior; OCBO = organizational citizenship behaviors targeting organization; OCBI = organizational citizenship behaviors targeting individual; IRB = in-role behavior; I-C values = value dimension of individualism-collectivism; I-C norms = norm dimension of individualism-collectivism.
One of the OCBI items, despite loading on the predicted factor (.48), also loaded on the OCBO factor (.54).
Davila De Leon and Finkelstein (2011) found that collectivism predicted both OCBO
and OCBI, but found no relationship between individualism and citizenship behavior.
Hence, organizational learning values might foster OCBO
, because by promoting strategic thinking, individuals develop an organizational system approach, which expands their perspectives beyond their formal role (Senge, 1990, 1993).