The OCVs Shanchol and Euvichol are relatively new additions to cholera and acute humanitarian response activities, although there have been some prior examples of their use in emergency settings (18,20,26).
When the 2015 cholera outbreak began in Iraq, the Iraq MoH and implementing partners immediately began planning a vaccination campaign using the bivalent OCV Shanchol (7-9) to complement WaSH and other cholera control measures.
will be 28 m wide and 145.7 m long with accommodations for 200 people.
Findings from a re-analysis of the Bangladesh trial of killed OCVs (both BS-WC and WC only) by the IVI indicated that these vaccines provided herd protection against cholera among those who were not vaccinated (7), including those who were too young to receive the vaccine (8), substantially increasing the public health impact of the killed OCVs.
The licensure of a new-generation oral cholera vaccine (OCV) in India therefore provides a short to medium term solution for cholera control.
, OSA Goliath, is built for Coastline Maritime, a prominent Singapore-based group with a 30-year history of vessel ownership design, construction and operation.
This decision was consistent with World Health Assembly Resolution 64.15, which calls for implementation of an integrated and comprehensive approach to cholera control that includes the use of oral cholera vaccine (OCV
for their clear discussion of the arguments against the use of oral cholera vaccines (OCVs
) in Haiti in 2010-11 (7).
Nonetheless, over the past decade, the occurrence of large, protracted outbreaks (22,23) and the licensing and marketing of new oral cholera vaccines (OCVs
) have focused discussion on the role of vaccination as a supplementary cholera preventive and control measure (13).
Lithium cells--all of which use a non-aqueous electrolyte--have nominal open circuit voltages (OCVs
) of between 2.8V and 3.9V.
Temperature dependence of Open Circuit Voltage (OCV
) (electromotive force (emf)) is reported for Li-Sn system in the literature to measure free energy components (entropy and enthalpy) associated with the alloy .