, R., Skotnes, L.H., Romild, U., Bakke, A., Mykletun, A., & Kuhry, E.
Usually really positive." PI (Female, 12 year-old, BB level) stated, "They usually make me play better if they're cheering." Similarly, P9 (Male, 12 year-old, A level) said, "It gets me motivated and pumped up to hear the crowd cheering my name or someone else's name." The finding that participants appreciated cheering and positive comments from spectators aligns with previous work (e.g., Omli
& Weise-Bjomstal, 2011).
DuRant, R., Champion H., Wolfson, M., Omli
, M., McCoy T., D'Agostino Jr., R.B., & Mitra, A.
Thombs, D., Dodd, V., Pokorny, S.B., Omli
, M.R., O'Mara, R., Webb, M.C., & Werch, C.
, R., Skotnes, L.H., Romild, U., Bakke, A., Myldetun, A., & Kuhry, E.
Following the rinse, participants waited approximately five minutes before providing their breath samples (Dubowsky, 1975; Thombs, Dodd, Pokorny, Omli, O'Mara, Webb, Lacai, & Werch, 2007).
Thombs, D.L., Dodd, V., Pokorny, S.B., Omli, M.R., O'Mara, R., Webb, M.C., Lacai, D.M., & Werch, C.
Minimal attention (Omli & Wiese-Bjornstal, 2006) has been given to the behavior of youth sport parents as a potential source of stress for youth sport participants, therefore, the purpose of the present paper is to consider how exposure to angry youth sport parent behavior such as yelling at officials may influence children.
Previous research suggests adults engage in a variety of behaviors on the sidelines, including positive and derogatory verbal comments (Holt et al., in press), inattentiveness and booing (Omli & Wiese-Bjornstal, 2006), and physical altercations (Shields et al., 2007).
Children often negatively perceive parental suggestions as outright criticism, and strategic suggestions are often delivered in an angry tone (Kidman et al, 1999; Omli & Wiese-Bjornstal, 2006), which suggests that coaching and encouragement of rough play and rule breaking from the sidelines arguably reflect background anger.
Specifically targeting BA in youth sport through parent education programs such as Minnesota PLAYS [TM] (Parents Learning About Youth Sports; LaVoi, Omli, Wiese-Bjornstal, 2008), may be an effective strategy for reducing such behaviors, and therefore positively affecting the youth sport climate for everyone.
For example, barring parents from competitions is not an optimal solution because a majority of children and adolescents enjoy when parents attend and watch competitions (Omli & Wiese-Bjornstal, 2006; Shields et al., 2005) and parents are a vital source of support for children (Fredericks & Eccles, 2004).