When OMSS is fermented with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, it might be possible not only to prolong the storage period but to also improve the nutritional value.
Therefore, the aims of this study were: i) to select the LAB strains for the fermentation of sawdust-based OMSS to prolong the storage time and to improve the feed value, ii) to evaluate the effects of fermented OMSS supplement in animal trials in post-weaning Holstein calves.
Preliminary to determining the proper combination of microorganisms to lower the pH and thus to prolong the storage time of the sawdust-based OMSS, OMSS fermentation mixture was prepared by mixing 150 g wet weight of OMSS with 75 g each of rice bran, wheat bran and corn hull, 50 g of molasses (named Conc hereafter) and 75 g of tap water (total 500 g).
fOMSS was prepared by mixing 30% oyster mushroom spent substrate (OMSS) with the concentrates including 15% rice bran, 15% wheat bran, 15% corn hull, 10% molasses, 15% water and LAB mixture ([10.sup.10]-[10.sup.11] live cells each/kg of Lactobacillus plantarum Lp1, Pediococcus acidilacticii Pa193 and L.
Selection of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for the fermentation of OMSS (oyster mushroom spent substrate)
Various combinations of DFMs (direct-fed microbials) were tested for pH-lowering capacity to increase the storage period of the sawdust-based OMSS. This TMR mix was inoculated with various combinations of LABs (Pediococcus acidilactia CAM1, Pediococcus acidilactia Pa175 and Lactobacillus plantarum Lp177), yeast (Saccharomyces boulardii Sb796) and Bacilli (B.
Thus, these three LAB species were selected as DFMs (direct-fed microbials) and used for the OMSS fermentation as the inocula for the animal experiment.
In situ digestibility of commercial TMR, OMSS and OMMM (oyster mushroom mycelia mass) was measured (Figure 2).
To evaluate the practical efficacy of fermented OMSS as a feed additive and an antibiotic alternative, Trial II was designed to include Control (calf starter with no supplement, n = 7), AB (colistin 0.08% and oxyneo110/110 0.1%, n = 8), DFM (direct fed microbials, n = 8) and fOMSS (10% fOMSS, n = 8) groups (Table 4).
OMSS quickly deteriorated within a few days after harvest of mushrooms, especially in hot summer time.
Last year, I directed my HR team to take a hard look at the skills and competencies our OMSs will need to succeed in the future, given their evolving roles and continuing changes in technology.
We're using the survey's results to explore expanding the duties and grades of OMSs, determine their future needs, update the OMS Professional Development Plan and validate hiring processes.