credulity to argue that the level of force authorized for ONUC
Sergeant Francis Eivers (Ireland), investigator and security officer, ONUC
Hammarskjold did not at this point ask for an extended ONUC
mandate to deal with the humanitarian threats.
Of particular interest is Canada's early reluctance to respond favourably to Hammarskjold's request for Canadian bilingual personnel to participate in ONUC
After John Kennedy took office as president, the United States stood more decisively against Katanga, first permitting and later pushing for more assertive ONUC
demonstrated the risks involved in trying to bring stability to war-torn regions 250 UN personnel died while serving on that mission, including the Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjold.
Recordemos que su antecesora, la ONUC
de los anos sesenta, en un momento determinado cambio su naturaleza juridica.
Notese que ya algunas de estas operaciones de primera generacion fueron incorporando elementos de consolidacion de la paz con personal civil y militar, como las operaciones de la ONUC
(23) en Congo en 1960/1964, que incluyo la asistencia tecnica al pais, y la UNTEA (24) en Nueva Guinea Occidental en 1962/1963, que cumplio funciones de apoyo legislativo, judicial y ejecutivo.
For good accounts of the use of force in ONUC
see Trevor Findlay's chapter on the Congo in Trevor Findlay, The Use of Force in Peace Operations (SIPRI/Oxford University Press, 2002).
Accused of pro-Western bias by the Soviets and condemned for intervening in the internal affairs of an independent nation by the non-aligned states, ONUC
so divided the UN that the latter's very existence was threatened.
23) The matter went to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in the Certain Expenses of the United Nations Case, in which the Court confirmed obiter the constitutionality of the UN peacekeeping operations UNEF I and ONUC
In spite of being very robust missions and very instrumental in preserving the territorial integrity of the DRC, ONUC
and MONUC have not been able to bring about sustainable peace to the DRC in their respective periods of operation; nor have they succeeded in enabling the emergence of strong state institutions in the country upon their completion.