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We also control for the relative generosity of MA through a measure of relative price for MA versus TM, which is defined based on the average expected OOPC of enrollment in MA in Miami-Dade and enrollment in TM with supplemental Medigap Plan C in Miami-Dade that we calculated for each of our age groups and is equal to (average expected OOPC in TM with Medigap Plan C)--(average expected OOPC in MA).
MA plans offer additional benefits over TM including vision coverage, hearing coverage, and some additional drug coverage; however, the primary additional benefits provided by MA over TM are lower expected OOPC for an equivalent benefit.
Not only can such policy make nonincident beneficiaries better off, if by transitioning into MA they are able to take advantage of a generous benefit at lower OOPC (such as that offered in Miami-Dade in 2007 and 2008), but it also has the potential to improve the value of federal spending on MA.
Average annual OOPC in any MA plan in one year is the average monthly expected OOPC in all MA plans across all ages that year, multiplied by twelve.
Objective burden provides a quantifiable determination of burden using readily available data on income and OOPC, of importance for policy development, while subjective burden identifies the more nuanced role of perception, for example, a person's decision not to seek care because of cost; these two forms of burden are rarely assessed simultaneously, and they have never been used in conjunction to develop a measure of financial burden.
As policy makers and actuaries have defined insurance subsidies and cost-sharing limits without empirical evidence regarding what level of OOPC is burdensome for families, the development of a tool that can measure such burden will be important for assessing existing policies and guiding future policy decisions.
Financial burden was modeled as a joint function of family income and OOPC.
Because the NHIS provides only a categorical measure of OOPC (i.
All income and OOPC values were adjusted for inflation to 2010 U.
Family income and OOPC from the first survey year were used to construct the novel categorical measures of financial burden (based on the results from the NHIS sample).
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- Oophorectomy and Hysterectomy
- oophoritic cyst
- oophoritic cyst