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(i) We use LSTM, a deep neural network learning from raw opcode sequences to achieve malware detection, minimizing the heavy workload for artificial feature engineering.
A variable of type Statement can have as its value any of the statements in the program and possesses attributes indicating the first, second, and third operand ([opr.sub.1], [opr.sub.2], and [opr.sub.3], respectively) and the operation (opcode).
Each line specifies a constructor by giving its opcode, operands, type, and pattern.
Branch Prediction Miss Rates Our Implementation (ALPHA) Heuristic B&L (MIPS) C Fortran Overall Loop Branch 12% 17% 12% 15% Pointer 40% 58% 1% 55% Call 22% 23% 44% 31% Opcode 16% 33% 29% 32% Loop Exit 20% 28% 30% 29% Return 28% 29% 30% 30% Store 45% 52% 30% 42% Loop Header 25% 33% 48%, 30% Guard 38% 34% 31% 33% These averages are for all the programs we simulated, and a program is only included in a heuristics's average if the heuristic applies to at least 1% of the dynamic branches in the program.
After the optimizer completes the list of instructions, it translates each abstract opcode to zero or more Alpha AXP opcodes, again building a linked list of instructions.
First, the address mode and opcode are always defined in the first instruction parcel (first two bytes), so there is no (slow) sequential decoding of the instruction; subsequent bytes can be immediately routed (as to the adder) without further examination.
Finally, if the current opcode is 'int' and the size of instruction is 3 bytes, this instruction has some prefix bytes because the size of the instruction 'int' is originally 1 byte.
"Control flow-based opcode behavior analysis for Malware detection." Computers & Security 44 (2014): 65-74.
Absolute time-lock transactions use CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY opcode to specify a fixed date in the future when the output of the transaction can be spent, and relative time-lock transactions use CHECKSEQUENCEVERIFY opcode to establish amount of time far from the transaction publishing time.
(3) After comparing two sequences' opcode and marking all the matching coordinates, we gain a plotted graph on a grid of size n * m.
After calculating and comparing the features above, my observations showed that some opcode frequencies and op-codes n-grams are obfuscation resistant and their values differ for different authors.
The second is the opcode interception at the translation stage, comparing the opcode information obtained by the disassembling instruction with the cache information; if the instruction type is the call for MPI library function, the program will go to place of the local MPI function encapsulation; otherwise, the instruction translation will be done.
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- Opcode (programming)
- Opcode Group Field
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