Their Table 1 posits 'potential types of causality' and they state that 'OpST (sic) uses a classic approach to causality' meaning 'simple causalities' (p.
Does all this match up with 'OpST, instead, studies an organization as a simple hierarchical structure and pays little attention to the "'internal" cognitive complexity development' (p.
In our paper (Kira and van Eijnatten, 2008), we compared our proposed approach to general open systems thinking (OpST), which was one of the inspirations in the early development of STS.
747), when comparing OpST and ChST, our intention was to set a context to our proposal 'to extend the foundations of STS from OpST to chaordic systems thinking'.
In summary, the classic STS and its regional varieties build on OpST and Participative Democracy, and establish self-managed teams through predefined development paths.
In order to promote work-organizational sustainability, we will consider organizations as chaordic open systems and propose to extend the foundations of STS from OpST to chaordic systems thinking (ChST: Hock, 1999; van Eijnatten, 2004).
With respect to system dynamics (I), we contrast OpST and ChST on three characteristics: states, environments and causality types.
With respect to system dimensions (II), we contrast OpST and ChST on five qualities: The system's methodology, system's perspective, teleological framework, system aggregates and complexity level.