And in a vernacular sermon, the only one, according to Owst
, in which their abuses are mentioned, (16) pardoners are straightforwardly listed among thieves: Sothell theves beth the men that slyly can robbe men with many queynt sotell wordes, and with fals behestynge; and sum with fals letters and seeles, with crosses, and reliques that thei bere abowten them, and sei that thei be of seyntes bones or of holy mens clothinge, and behoteth myche mede that will offre to hem, and hire the letters of pardon, ichon of other, as a kowe or a nox that man lat to hure; the wiche thei sell all for the penny, and fo no mans mede, with many fals lesynges, as the feend here maister techeth hem, for to robbe the pore pepull sotelly of ther goodes.
calls attention to a few instances (Literature and Pulpit in Medieval England: A Neglected Chapter in the History of English Letters and the English People [Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1933], 532).
"All these good causes were well accredited, and the pardoners who collected for them seem to have been a respectable set of people." (46) Indeed, even Owst
, a great critic of the medieval church, presented evidence, which suggested that the pardoners' ministrations were generally licit and recognized to be a great benefit to hospitals and churches:
said Beale had not received any takeover approaches but noted its stock market price was well below the estimated value of its property assets.
Medieval sermons often cautioned against impatient and excessively talkative women, "inconstant as the swallow" (Owst
, 74, secretary of the Hull Sunday Football League Premier Division in East Yorkshire, said: "I haven't ever seen a scoreline like it."
20: "Sicut ergo Ulixes secundum fabulas transiturus per loca maritima ubi erat cantus Synenarum aure obturavit, ne cantus dulcedine delectaretur, et arbori navis se ligavit, ne ab eis quocunque modo deceptus ad mare raperetur, et sicut fugiens ad ecclesiam videns inimicos supervenire ad eum rapiendum crucifixum amplectitur: Ita quilibet nostrum per mare huius mundi navigaturus, aures et alios sensus claudat ab illicitis, ad Christum et crucem fugiat crucemque amplectatur." Owst
, who points out the two exempla in Bromyarde, also mentions several other instances in medieval English sermons; see Owst
, 186, with nn.2 and 4.
 Davenport, inspired by the 1933 work of Geoffrey Owst
; Literature and the Pulpit, suggests that the cycle texts "before...
. His Literature and Pulpit in Medieval England (1926; 2nd rev.
, Literature and the Pulpit in Medieval England, 2nd ed (Oxford, 1961), 13-14.
, Literature and Pulpit in Medieval England (Cambridge, 1933), 362-3.
grotesquely reflective of those in God's Owst
cites an example