Planet Earth is thus likely to see "a more active hydrological cycle with more heavy precipitation events and shifts in precipitation, widespread retreat of non-polar glaciers, increases in sea level and ocean heat content
, and decreases inn snow cover and sea-ice extent and thickness".
These anomalous currents contributed to sea level and upper ocean heat content (OHC) falling in the western tropical Pacific and rising in the east, again building on a 2014 pattern.
Globally, ocean heat content and sea level both continued to rise, reaching record high values in 2015.
Maynooth University's Professor Peter Thorne, one of the report's editors, said: "There is no room for reasonable doubt that the climate system continues to warm with record high sea levels, record ocean heat content
and record warm sea surface temperatures.
According to measurements by an array of autonomous free-floating ocean floats called Argo, as well as by earlier devices called expendable bathythermographs, or XBTs, that were dropped from ships to obtain temperature data, ocean heat content has increased over the last 16 years.
and international partners -- greatly reduce the uncertainties in estimates of ocean heat content over the past several years, the team said.
Up until now, there has been evidence that surface air temperature and ocean heat content
have been affected, but the impact on precipitation has proved to be more difficult to pin down.
Expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data were the major component of the ocean temperature profile observations from the late 1960s through the early 2000s, and XBTs still continue to provide critical data to monitor surface and subsurface currents, meridional heat transport, and ocean heat content
An El Nino-like draining of warm upper (0-700 m) ocean heat content
anomaly (OHCA) east of the Philippines from 2013 to 2014 through a stronger-than-normal eastward flow in the North Equatorial Countercurrent fed a buildup of anomalously warm OHCA across most of the equatorial Pacific, reflected in sea level.
In situ and satellite observations, ocean-atmosphere reanalysis products, and reconstructed datasets show multidecadal trends in upper Indian Ocean heat content
, temperature, salinity, and sea level since the 1950s.
Ocean heat content
also showed a warming trend in the western tropical Pacific and cooling trend in the eastern tropical Pacific from 1993 to 2013, consistent with overall trade-wind intensification during that time period.