Bulgariaas sole Kozloduy nuclear power plant has completed the planned annual maintenance of one of its two operating reactors
A further decision was then made to shut down one of the reactors, which would allow a programme of transfer of fuel from the shut down reactor to the still operating reactor
to take place, known as IRX.
suspended its last operating reactor
early Tuesday for scheduled checkups, leaving only two out of the country's 54 commercial reactors running.
* FBR: Fast breeder (only one industrial scale, and another one--a prototype--is the world's oldest operating reactor
Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma confirmed on 15 September a decision to shut down by 15 December the last operating reactor
at the Chernobyl plant.
Moreover, in contrast to Cominco's old smelting technique, which required that feed material be sintered, then run through blast furnaces to smelt it, the new direct smelting process will enable the production of lead bullion and slag directly from lead concentrate and zinc plant residue in a single, closed, continuously operating reactor
. The reactor is a brick-lined cylinder made of 30-mm-thick, heat-resistant steel, and measures 41 m in length and 4.5 m in dia.
Yet because of the lack of a long track record, the industry still has to make provision for scenarios which are unlikely in the extreme (such as terrorists taking over a plane and flying it into an operating reactor
All commercial nuclear powerplants licensed by NRC have a series of physical barriers to accessing the operating reactor
area, and are required to maintain a trained security force to protect them.
Ukraine relies on nuclear power for about half its electricity, but President Leonid Kuchma promised to honour a pledge to close Chernobyl's last operating reactor
by the end of this year.
The declaration also points out the cost of storing "stranded" nuclear waste--stored at reactors that have been shut down--can be up to five times the cost of maintaining waste at an operating reactor
. Given the likelihood of further shutdowns of currently operating reactors
, this is a cost-multiplier issue that cannot be ignored, according to Cooper.
The virtual reactor, called the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications, currently simulates a normally operating reactor
. It can model nuclear reactions and the behavior of neutrons in the reactor core, as well as heat and coolant flow.
On July 2, 2012, the director of the NRC's Division of Operating Reactor
Licensing responded to Schneiderman's petition in a "proposed director's decision."