2002; Anjum and Bajwa, 2005)] and rice [(coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid
, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, o-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid) (Chou and Lin, 1976; Rimando et al.
1989) isolated two phytoinhibitors, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, from aqueous extracts of sudex (Sorghum-sudangrass hybrid) shoot tissue.
Grodzinsky (1987) devised a method for the isolation of phenolics such as cinnamic, p-coumaric, and p-hydroxybenzoic acids by using ion-exchange resins under wheat, rye, and other cereals.
KEY WORDS: biomonitoring, exposure, human, NHANES, p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters, urine.
The fraction of the parabens excreted in the urine as the parent paraben (free or conjugated) versus the fraction excreted as p-hydroxybenzoic acid is unknown.
In black currant they found p-coumaric acid, myricetin, quercetin, gallic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, kaempferol, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid
, which is in accordance with our results.
VA is a totally aromatic copolyester based on p-hydroxybenzoic acid
(HBA) and 2,6-hydroxynaphthoic acid (HNA).
Until now, the only biomarker used for human paraben exposure was p-hydroxybenzoic acid
A thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer was a copolyester comprising 60 mol% of p-hydroxybenzoic acid
and 40 mol% of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (Rodrun LC3000) purchased from the Unitika Company.
In animals, parabens are mostly hydrolyzed to p-hydroxybenzoic acid and excreted in the urine as conjugates.
KEYWORDS: biomonitoring, conjugate, ethylparaben, metabolism, methylparaben, butylparaben, n-propylparaben, p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters, urine.
In addition, the other phenolic acids detected from extracts were tr-cinnamic, vanillic, p-hydroxybenzoic acids