Enzyme abbreviations are as follows: ADC, arginine decarboxylase; ARG, arginase; GAD, glutamate decarboxylase; NOS, NO synthase; ODC, ornithine decarboxylase; P5CR, pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase; P5CS
, pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase.
In transgenic rice plants, overexpression of P5CS resulted in significant proline accumulation which resulted in salt tolerance (Su and Wu 2004).
Hong Z, Lakkineni K, Zhang Z, Verma DPS (2000) Removal of feedback inhibition of 1 pyrroline-5-carboxylase synthetase (P5CS) results in increased proline accumulation and protection of plants from osmotic stress.
Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using the strain LB4404 harbouring the binary vector pBI121 with the P5CS gene under CaMV 35S promoter and the bar gene as a plant selectable marker was used for transforming grape explants.
Keywords: Abiotic stress; Grape; Genetic transformation; Gene expression; P5CS gene; Proline
Using site-directed mutagenesis, a replacement of the amino acid Phe at position 129 by Ala was made in Vigna aconitifolia P5CS to eliminate the proline feedback inhibition control of the pathway (ZHANG et al., 1995).
Confirming data obtained by some authors (KONSTANTINOVA et al., 2002; POSPISILOVA et al., 2011; ZHU et al., 1998), the insertion of the heterologous p5cs gene into tobacco plants resulted in an increased proline accumulation in leaf tissues.
Jimenez-Bremont, "Salt stress increases the expression of p5cs
gene and induces proline accumulation in cactus pear," Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, vol.
tobacco ([DELTA].sup.1]-pyrroline-5- carboxylate synthetase) gene Vigna aconitifolia L.
These genes play an important role in osmotic adjustment under high salinity conditions and include delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS
) (Hong et al., 2000) and abscisic acid and environmental stress-inducible protein (TAS14) (Munoz- Mayor et al., 2012).
aestivum growth period by upregulating the drought tolerance related genes involved in ABA signal pathway, such as LEA1, SnRK2, and pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase gene (P5CS
Cseplo et al., "Duplicated P5CS
genes of arabidopsis play distinct roles in stress regulation and developmental control of proline biosynthesis," Plant Journal, vol.