NOTE: MMSE = Mini-Mental State Examination; PADL = physical activities of daily living.
Depression during hospitalization, by itself; is not predictive of later functional status: This group displayed increased risk in only one PADL and in no summary indices.
In this study, the available prefracture and baseline variables (age, gender, race, marital status, education, and cognitive and prefracture comorbid, PADL, IADL, and social function) did not differentiate individuals who were persistently depressed from those whose depression resolved by two months postfracture.
Information about PADLs was obtained with a modified version of the Functional Status Index (Jette, 1980), to which was added lower extremity activities of relevance to hip fracture recovery.
PADLs and IADLs were assessed in reference to whether the individual could perform the task independently; activities were coded to represent dichotomous categories with 0 representing independent functioning and 1 indicating dependence.
Multiple linear regression was used for the summary score, controlling for age, gender, race, education, marital status, comorbidities, cognitive status, and prefracture PADLs, IADLs and social functioning.
a) Adjusted for age, gender, race, education, marital status, comorbidities, Mini-Mental State Examination score, and prefracture PADLs, IADLs, and social functioning.
TABLE 5--Bivariate Logistic Regressions of Depression Category on Dependence in Individual PADLs and IADLs and Participation in Individual Social Function Activities at 12 Months Postfracture
Cognitive Status Prefracture Prefracture (MMSE) PADLs Social No depression 25.