185) Between 2010 and 2013, pharmaceutical companies spent approximately 123 million dollars to lobby against PAMTA.
224) The PAMTA bill illustrates the "after-the-fact" approach by commanding the withdrawal of medically important antibiotics for non-therapeutic use or growth promotion and thus clearly disregards the root of antibiotic resistance by ignoring the necessity of repeated sub-therapeutic dosing on CAFOs in order to prevent anticipated disease.
Although critics attack FDA for its voluntary strategy, urging the Agency to take a more powerful approach, and encouraging the passage of bills such as PAMTA, these "stronger" actions do not coincide with the reality of modern farm conditions.
PAMTA was first introduced to the 106th Congress in 1999 and has been introduced several times over the past decade.
361, 376 (2012) (discussing obstacles that PAMTA faces).
See also HAUTER, supra note 20, at 143, 146 (describing unlikelihood of PAMTA passing due to industry pressures).