Specifically, the adjusted odds ratios for PAVDs
were 1.7 (95 percent CI, 0.93 to 3.0) and 2.5 (95 percent CI, 1.1 to 5.3) in the medium- and high-intensity groups, respectively, for mothers with an address listed in the second gestational month.
Hall explained that PAVD's impact varies depending upon how the credit union's debit program is structured and what other PIN-authorized processor it has.
This interchange versus cost aspect of PAVD had been in place a long time, Hall explained, but it had never really been a factor in debit program economics because PAVD was used so rarely.
"Maybe two or three debit transactions a week might come over PAVD before, now they are up 35% or 40% at some credit unions," he said.