However, a new study by the University of Pittsburgh has found evidence of PBDEs
in food fed to farmed salmon - even in those in supposedly PBDE-free environments.
The basis of Norway's proposal was a congener-specific human health risk assessment of mixtures of decaBDE and other PBDE
congeners that was commissioned by the Norwegian Environmental Protection Agency (Kortenkamp et al.
Hallgren, "Plasma PBDE
and thyroxine levels in rats exposed to Bromkal or BDE-47," Chemosphere, vol.
Many studies identify indoor air and the concomitant inhalation, ingestion, or dermal absorption of PBDEs
present in household dust as a primary PBDE
exposure pathway for humans [23, 33, 44-49].
They tested cat food and blood samples from cats and by-products of PCB and PBDE
were found at very high levels.
So check to see if the carpet is labeled as complying with CA Bulletin 117; that's the 2000 California fire-retardant standard (turns out it was a bad idea) that mandated fire retardants be used in a wide range of household items -- and they were generally PBDEs
. But even if it isn't labeled, that doesn't mean you're in the clear.
The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) added two of three existing commercial PBDE
formulas to the list of banned Persistent Organic Pollutants (PIPs) due to concerns over toxicity in wildlife and mammals in 2009.
Results showed a strong correlation between contamination by PBDEs
and PCBs with depressed thyroid hormone levels in chicks - one thyroid hormone was 43% lower in chicks from urban rivers than those on rural rivers.
"This is the largest and most comprehensive study to date to examine neurobehavioral development in relation to body burden measures of PBDE
flame retardants," said study lead author Brenda Eskenazi, Jennifer and Brian Maxwell Professor of Maternal and Child Health and Epidemiology.
Annex II of the directive sets the maximum limits tolerated by weight: lead (0,1%), mercury (0,1%), cadmium (0,01%), hexavalent chromium (0,1%), polybrominated biphenyls (PBB - 0,1%), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE
It was startling to see that the PBDE
levels were very much higher in butter samples [than thought]," he says, comparing his results to those of previous tests.