In the PBSM, the term 'practice situation' is used to emphasise the point that the stimulus material should not merely be a patient case, but should include practice context surroundings in which the patient and the nurse are physically, socially, and emotionally located (Fero et al 2009).
The "practice situation" in the PBSM provides a full description of a nurse-patient encounter, while the simulation scenario represents a snap shot of a particular portion of that situation.
The PBSM suggests that various forms of debriefing be used, according to the learner's level of preparation, and in order to meet the objectives of the learning module.
Practice situation and simulation are the elements of the PBSM emphasising the goals of authenticity.
The PBSM includes regular, structured learning sessions such as lectures, tutorials, clinical skill labs, and web-based interactive learning sessions.
For example, clinical laboratory sessions in the PBSM are designed to a foster collaborative learning environment using vignettes and multimedia content.
The strategies to promote learners' inquiry processes are distributed in each element of the PBSM and across the curriculum, so as to focus on gradual improvement in learners' critical thinking skills.
One of the main features of the PBSM model is its use of pre- and post-concept mapping as a mean to aid learners' self-evaluation of their learning needs and outcomes.
Assessment as one of the five elements of the PBSM displays close links to the practice situation so learning is re-directed to the specific context.
The PBSM advocates the use of simulation in assessing the clinical component of the curriculum as it allows educators to formatively assess in ways that are consistent with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes underpinning competent performance.
Thus, in the PBSM it is advocated that accommodations be made for multiple simulated encounters to encompass a broader range of practice domains in order to effectively and accurately assess learners' abilities in clinical settings.
There is an ongoing need for staff development in all aspects of the PBSM, but particular emphasis needs to be focused on assessing the processes that learners develop during a program.