Improved floor walking speeds, economy of gait, and cardiovascular fitness were reported for subjects with chronic hemiparesis after 6 months of TM aerobic exercise (T-AEX) training using handrail support without PBWS (Figures 1-2) .
reported that after a 4-week PBWS training program, survivors of stroke who trained at faster TM velocities had greater increases in the criterion test of self-selected floor walking velocity .
have been proponents of coupling PBWS TM training with transfer to the specific task of overground walking, immediately reinforced by cueing appropriate arm and stepping actions .
also extended this method to a small cohort of nonambulatory subjects with hemiplegia to characterize cortical responses during PBWS TM walking .
Another fMRI study with four chronic survivors of stroke examined responses in cortical activity associated with ankle dorsiflexion control and lower-limb function during and after a 10-week program of PBWS TM training .
Added perspective on the effects of PBWS on the CNS is gained from consideration of locomotor therapy in patients with incomplete SCI.
TM training that progresses the performance demands or goals would seem to meet these criteria, whether through gradual reductions in PBWS or increasing practice workloads through longer duration and faster velocity or immediately transferring TM practice patterns to overground walking.
In our design, OMP and PBWS are motorized using five motors, whereas [R.sub.1], [R.sub.2], and [R.sub.3] are passive and embedded with compliance.
Partial body weight support system (PBWS): 6, PBWS frame; 7, tensioning wheel; 8, synchronous belt; 9, linear guides, 10, servo motor (BMH1401P11A1A).