To unpack the development of this allegory, this section will examine four rhetorical performances--Russell Saltzman's testimony before a Senate Appropriations subcommittee, Leon Kass' 2001 essay "Preventing a Brave New World," and his white paper "Beyond Therapy: Biotechnology and the Pursuit of Human Improvement" presented to the PCBE in January 2003; and the PCBE's 2003 report Beyond Therapy: Biotechnology and the Pursuit of Happiness.
The condemnation of embryonic stem cell research and cloning is intensified in Leon Kass' essay "Preventing a Brave New World" (2001b), which was originally published in The New Republic and submitted to Congress as prepared testimony for a hearing on human cloning, (6) and his white paper "Beyond Therapy: Biotechnology and the Pursuit of Human Improvement" (2003) presented to the PCBE in January 2003.
Here, in a paper meant to open deliberations of the PCBE, Kass o fers a demure version of the broadside found in "Preventing a Brave New World," but in place of the extended references to the novel and the dramatic language of that essay, Kass claims that his interpretation is in fact the one that Huxley himself suggested, just as Saltzman did in 2001.
The traditional allegory of BNW created by Kass is imported into the PCBE's 2003 report Beyond Therapy: Biotechnology and the Pursuit of Happiness.
Finally, the topics of concern in Beyond Therapy--cloning, genetic and pharmaceutical modifications, and life extension--were first named in "Preventing a Brave New World" and elaborated further in the white paper "Beyond Therapy," before becoming individual chapters in the PCBE report.
The PCBE report (2003) also continues Kass' attack on other meanings and concerns that BNW could convey.
Further evidence comes from Ruth Macklin (2006), who recounts how Kass' declarations at conferences and PCBE meetings foreclosed conversation (p.
Additionally, audiences could read traditional allegories of BNW oppositionally, but Kass and the PCBE have made such oppositional readings difficult.
Alternatives such as those proposed for consideration by the PCBE are discussed in the next section.
(180) See e.g., PCBE, White Paper: Alternative Sources of Pluripotent Stem Cells (May 2005), pp.