This research examines the role of geographic factors in PCED utilization by developing and applying detailed measures of spatial accessibility to diverse primary health care services.
Education, demographics, financial and insurance resources, and access to transportation are among the demand/patient-level influences on PCED utilization.
Spatial accessibility of health services is a key supply-side factor that may influence people's likelihood of PCED. Spatial accessibility refers to geographical factors that affect the ability to use health services, including the location and number of health providers and the distances and transportation networks linking them to local populations (Wang and Luo 2005).
Examining PCED rates by ZIP code in Houston, Begley et al.
When the second rolling sample drops observations from the 1970s for CPI inflation and from the 1970s and 1980s for PCED inflation, drift in the AR coefficients suggests instabilities in inflation persistence.
Also, CPI inflation is higher on average and more volatile than PCED inflation given the MLEs of [[??].sub.0] and [[??].sub.[epsilon]].
However, [[??].sub.0,t] rises for CPI inflation in the 1980 recession in the first rolling sample, while [[??].sub.0,t] shows little change for PCED inflation in the same period for this sample.
The plots of [[??].sub.t] drift toward 1 for the four inflation growth measures on the second rolling sample around the 1980 recession for the CPI inflation growth rates and the 1973-75 recession for the PCED inflation growth rates.
The PCED is only one among many price deflators used by the BEA.
The PCED and CPI-U measured price inflation quite differently in some of the years of the 1973-86 period, as shown in Table.
Nevertheless, use of the CPI-U as a price deflator in the 1973-82 period tended to erode incomes to a greater extent than use of the PCED. The BLS has now developed an index that links the period before and after 1983 in a manner which provides a consistent treatment of homeownership costs.
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