Over the years, many measurement instruments have been developed for the self-reporting of children and parents, intended to evaluate the parent's use of specific practices, to characterize the level of parental control and acceptance, and to classify the parent into one of four parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved (e.g.: PPS: Bloom, 1985; PAQ: Buri, 1999; PCRQ
: Furman & Giberson, 1995; PAC: Reitzle, Winkler Metzke & Steinhausen, 2001; PSDQ: Robinson, Mandelco, Olsen & Hart, 2001; PARQ: Rohner, 2005; CRPBI: Schafer, 1965; APQ: Shelton, Frick & Wooton, 1996).
For example, the Parent-Child Relationship Questionnaire (PCRQ
; Furman & Giberson, 1995) and Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS; Pianta, 1999) provide information about parent and teacher perceptions of the strength of parent-child and teacher-student relationships, respectively.