plays a vital role in the regulation of glucose and fatty acid metabolism and also exerts a major influence on cell proliferation by regulating carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism.
The expression levels of miR-122 and miR-449a in the 24-month-old testes were higher than those in the neonatal and 12-month-old groups during the testicular maturation process, however, PDK4
, DUSP4 and FKBP1B expression levels were decreased (p<0.01).
(2015), in Quarter Horses, a breed noted for their sprinting speed and high percentage of type II muscle fiber, indicated that the SNPs in PDK4
and COX4I2 showed no significant associations with a Quarter Horse speed index.
Nahle, "Regulation of the PDK4
isozyme by the Rb-E2F1 complex," The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
, and CS regulate glycolysis, acetyl-CoA generation, and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle), respectively.
Effects of endurance training on PGC-1[alpha], PDK4
, p-ACC and Cyt C
Four isoforms of PDK (PDK1, PDK2, PDK3 and PDK4
) phosphorylate specific serine residues on the [alpha]-subunit of E1 and two isoforms of PDP (PDP1 and PDP2) dephosphorylate the residues.
Primer sequences for acetyl-CoA acyltransferase (ACAA2), long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADL), acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL1), very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADVL), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (CPT1B), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECH1), hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HADHA), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK4
), PGC-1[alpha], PGC-1[beta], PPAR[alpha], glutamate dehydrogenase, and 18S ribosomal RNA are available in Supplemental Material, Table S1 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205056).
Another in vitro gene expression study with normal and PCOS ovaries revealed altered expression of several genes involved in insulin function like PDK4
(pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4), PIGH (phosphatidylinositolglycan class H) and UDP-GalNAcPP (UDP-GalNAc pyropho sphorylase) and some genes involved in insulin mitogenic pathway, mainly those in MAPK pathway, such as RPS6KA2 (44).
Cloning and characterization of PDK4
on 7q21.3 encoding a fourth pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme in human.
In addition, two performance-associated sequence variants of exercise-related genes, e.g., myostatin (MSTN) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4
) have been studied.
In this article, we report that Chi preferentially induced two important PPAR target genes, ANGPTL4 (angiopoietin-like 4) and PDK4
(pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4), which are involved in lipid metabolism and insulin sensitization, relative to Ros and Pio.