PDRYPeople's Democratic Republic of Yemen
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On the last important meeting between a leader of the PDRY and that of the USSR, in 1988, Gorbachev informed Ali Al-Beidh that the Soviet Union could not continue to provide economic and military aid to Aden as before.
In 1972, the governments of the PDRY and the YAR declared that they approved a future union.
One of the main objectives of the PDRY was to make the National Democratic Front (NDF) - "a coalition of North Yemeni leftist organizations" supported by Aden - part of the North Yemen government.
This curtailment of its regionally radical role had its impact on the situation within the PDRY itself.
While the ban was difficult to implement in areas where qat was grown, such as in Yafi' and Al-Dhale, it was relatively easy to monitor qat sales in Aden since all qat reached this desert-like strip of land by the single road linking the southern capital with the cultivation areas in the mountains of the PDRY and North Yemen.
It may be worth recalling that PDRY officials, who were in somewhat weaker positions, accepted tough northern conditions.
This type of unity was dismantled after the war of independence, when the PDRY was born in 1967.
Relations improved after 1990, when PDRY merged with North Yemen to form the Republic of Yemen.
True, occasional elections for parliaments or local councils were conducted in both South and North Yemen during the reign of the former PDRY and YAR regimes, but in each case the state made sure it controlled the process and outcome of the election.
PDRY and YAR have existed since the 1960s, when South Yemen gained independence from the British and Yemeni Arab nationalist revolutionaries deposed the religious monarchy ruling the North.
Hiraak, or the Southern Movement, is a broad coalition of disaffected southerners from the former PDRY.
The movement, which ultimately failed, was led by Ali Salim Al-Baidh, the former PDRY president, (unified) Yemen s vice-president and Yemen Socialist party (YSP) head.