is a methodology for assessing the status of a country's public finance management (PFM) systems.
The assessment will be based on the 2016 PEFA
framework, whereas the first and second assessments, which were conducted in 2009 and 2013 were based on 2005 and 2011 frameworks respectively.
These virulence genes are mainly associated with host cell recognition and invasion (invA, orgA, prgH, tolC, sopB, pefA
), intracellular survival and growth in reticuloendothelial tissues (pagC, spvC), survival within macrophages (spiA, msgA), entry into non-phagocytic cells and killing of macrophages (spaN, sipB), and iron acquisition (ironN) (MOHAMED et al., 2014; SKYBERG et al., 2006).
gene, which was detected in four strains at the present study, may be located on the same or different plasmid with different virulence (spv) genes.
Speaking at an interaction entitled 'Role of professionals in public finance management' organized by The Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nepal (ICAN) and Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability (PEFA
) Secretariat jointly on Friday, stakeholders say that there is need of skilled and professional human resources for the improvement of the public finance management in the new federal set-up.
The IMF team welcomed the reform momentum in public financial management and discussed key reforms that have been highlighted by the recent Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability (PEFA
Primers used were pefA
(plasmid virulence encoded by fimbria), invA (pathogenicity) and spvC (plasmid virulence).
None of the evaluated frameworks and instruments fully complied with the mapping criteria, but some of them scored well: the PEFA
PMF evaluation framework, IMF Fiscal Transparency ROSC, Open Budget Survey, Gap Analysis on Public Sector Accounting and Auditing, Accounting and Auditing ROSC, EC/SIGMA Assessment Report on External Audit, IDI Capacity Development Needs Assessment Guide, AFROSAI-E Quality Assurance Review (Mapping of Tools for Assessing Performance of Supreme Audit Institutions, Volume 1: Report, INTOSAI-Donor Secretariat/the INTOSAI Development Initiative (IDI), 20 May 2012) (Figure no.
In this regard PEFA
assessment in FATA was carried out in 2013-14 in consultation with all stakeholders including World Bank.
This raw fly ash (RFA) was processed further to produce acid-treated fly ash (AFA) and polyelectrolyte-coated fly ash (PEFA