Regulation of maternal behavior and offspring growth by paternally expressed Peg3
. Science, 284(5412), 330-334.
Scientists had assumed that the activity of Peg3 and other such genes would switch off after birth.
Swaney and his colleagues recently looked for an influence of Peg3 on the sexual behaviors of male mice.
Without Peg3, males didn't learn from sexual experience.
A subset of imprinted genes including Peg3 showed altered expression, but this was not accompanied by DNA methylation changes at the Peg3 ICR.
Imprinting of PEG3, the human homologue of a mouse gene involved in nurturing behavior.
Similar results emerged when Surani and his colleagues mutated the paternal copy of Peg3, which is also active in the embryonic and adult brain of mice.
The scientists also discovered that the females carrying Peg3 mutations failed to provide milk to their young, even though their mammary glands were full.
There were statistically significant inverse associations between PEG3 DMR methylation and lead levels in early ([beta] = -0.0012; 95% CI: -0.0020, -0.0004, p = 0.005) and middle childhood ([beta] = -0.0013; 95% CI: -0.0021, -0.0005, p = 0.002).
The association between the maximum lead concentration and decreased PEG3 DMR methylation in adulthood ([beta] = -0.0007; 95% CI: -0.0012, -0.0003, p = 0.003) was also more apparent in males ([beta] = -0.0013; 95% CI: -0.0021, -0.0006, p-value = 0.001) than in females ([beta] = -0.0004; 95% CI: -0.0010, 0.0002, p = 0.3).
We investigated the methylation patterns in DMRs of paternally imprinted gene H19, maternally imprinted genes Peg3 (paternally expressed 3), Snrpn (small nuclear ribonucleoprotein N), Igf2r (insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor), and Pegl in oocytes of control and obese animals and their offspring.
Similar results were obtained in DMRs of the maternally imprinted genes Igf2r, Pegl, and Peg3, which were digested by TaqaI and BstUI, [Taq.sup.[alpha]]I and BstBI, and [Taq.sup.[alpha]]I and BstUI, respectively (Figure 1B-D).