Human serum contains complex mixtures of PFOS, PFOA, and several other PFAAs
, but studies of the combined effects of PFAA
mixtures on human health and reproduction have been limited due to the complexity of studying combinations of chemicals.
To check whether this is the case for PFAA
, the expected breath concentrations were calculated from known plasma concentrations and tabulated Henry's constant values for aqueous solutions (28).
Evaluation of PFAA
concentrations has led to the discovery of genetic defects of amino acid metabolism as a result of primary renal or liver disease and the effects of amino acid deficiencies, imbalances and toxicities on amino acid metabolism (Zicker and Rogers, 1990).
The company went too far," said PFAA
President Guy Meek.
(2015) argued that conditioning on parity should be avoided in studies of PFAAs
and TTP, and stated "In a sense, [previous TTP] is a proxy for parity and fecundability." In our opinion, however, the time-varying nature of PFAA
exposures needs to be considered, and fecundability (or rather, its proxy measure, the TTP) and parity (previous births) should be treated as separate variables in causal models (Bach et al.
PFOA, PFOS, and their homologues (i.e., shorter and/or longer perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates) are often collectively referred to as perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs
) (Buck et al.
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs
) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that arise from direct usage as surfactants and as the ultimate breakdown products of many larger fluorinated chemicals (Butt et al.
, which represents NWA's cabin staff, said the initiative is "ill-conceived" because "it takes away from the primary reason 'qualified' passengers occupy exit row seats," according to National Security & Regulatory Affairs Coordinator Jeanne Elliot.
The Professional Flight Attendants Association (PFAA
), representing Northwest Airlines Corp flight attendants, has sued the airline for alleged improper training of replacement staff.
Prenatal concentrations of all PFAA
analytes measured in the study group were above the LOD.
members have been working under an interim agreement providing the airline with $117 million in savings on an annual basis.
Northwest is currently holding negotiations with the flight attendant union, Professional Flight Attendants Association (PFAA
), as well as two other unions to achieve USD 1.1bn in annual labour savings.