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This improvement can be due to the previously described beneficial effects of magnesium on vascular tone (e.g., reduced stiffness and reduced [Ca.sup.2+] entry), vascular responsiveness to endothelin-1, renin, and ROS production, and overall vascular function, including increased nitric oxide and PGI2 production, which promote vasodilation and inhibit platelet aggregation, respectively [23-26].
Whittle, "Inhibition of prostacyclin (PGI2) formation in the rat small-intestine and gastric mucosa by the ulcerogen, indomethacin [proceedings]," British Journal of Pharmacology, vol.
Factors involved in maintaining an increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in utero include fluid-filled lungs, decreased nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin (PGI2), and increased endothelin-1 (ET-1).
Prostaglandins (PG), particularly PGE2 and PGI2, released by osteoblastic tumor cells and nerve fibers found in reactive zone and in the nidus, are assumed to be a mediator responsible for severe nocturnal pain, which responds well to the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) treatment (5,6).
The effect of NSAIDs on homeostatic prostaglandins in the kidney, such as prostaglandin I2 (PGI2), otherwise known as prostacyclin and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is what is thought to lead to the deleterious alterations in kidney function (Moore et al., 2015; Schlondorff, 1993; Whelton, 1999).
Moreover, it has been demonstrated that endothelial NO synthase knockout mice were still capable of dilating their arteries as a response to shear stress due to release of additional vasodilatory molecules, such as prostacyclin (PGI2) and endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factor which may contribute to FMD (31).
Differential formation of prostacyclin (PGX or PGI2) by layers of the arterial wall.
Su sobreexpresion, en celulas tumorales afecta la AG debido a la produccion de eicosanoides (TAX2; PGI2 y PGE2) (Wang et al, 2013), los cuales estimulan la migracion de celulas endoteliales y AG por el incremento en la expresion del Factor de crecimiento endotelial vascular (VEGF).
It has also been reported that tea catechins exhibited antithrombogenic activity in streptozotocin-diabetic rats by normalizing the thromboxane A2 (TXA2): prostacyclin 12 (PGI2) ratio and thereby improving kidney function (Yang, Choi, & Rhee 1999; Choi, Chang, & Rhee 2002; Rhee, Kim, & Kwag 2002).
Prostacyclin synthase is the enzyme responsible for the production of the eicosanoid vasodilator prostacyclin (PGI2).
Increases in the expression of prostaglandins [mainly prostacyclines (PGI2) and prostaglandin- (PG-E)] have been shown to be responsible for excitation of Adelta- nerve fibers, leading to the feeling of pain (Reynolds, 1982; Rang and Dale, 2003).
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- PGI 2
- PGI 2
- PGI2-stimulating factor