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As underlined in a report by several distinguished authors, the "geographical origins of the myriad distinctive properties found in PGRFA are largely shrouded in millennia of evolutionary history." (114) Thus, it can be argued, in reference to FAO Resolution 5/89 and following Stephen Brush, that the Multilateral System will not aim so much at rewarding past contributions, but rather at encouraging future ones and conservation of plant genetic resources by local communities.
The issue relating to the monitoring of PGRFA flows giving rise to payment to the MLS was addressed in light of the reserved right of the breeder to offer the protected variety for sale.
The recipient shall then make payments at the discounted rate of 0.5% of the sales of the product that is a PGRFA belonging to the same crop as one of those listed under Annex 1 to the International Treaty, during a period of ten years, which can be extended by periods of five years.
(76.) MICHAEL HALEWOOD, SEARCHING FOR A LINE IN THE SAND: ISSUES TO CONSIDER CONCERNING FINANCIAL RETURNS FROM RECIPIENTS OF CENTRES' PGRFA UNDER DEVELOPMENT 36, http://www.cgiar.org/exco/exco13/ exco13_grpc_ip_guidelines.pdf.
In 2006, Carlos Correa warned that "unless it is understood that the SMTA must be signed by any subsequent recipient of products that incorporate the received PGRFA, the chain of payments (except if voluntarily made) would be interrupted when the first incorporation of the material into a product takes place." Carlos M.
(22) The "crops on the list already cover about eighty percent of the world's food-calorie intake from plants." (23) The Multilateral System can also apply, on a voluntary basis, to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture ("PGRFAs") held by "natural and legal persons" within the jurisdiction of the contracting parties, and to those held in international institutions other than the CGIAR with which the Governing Body for the International Treaty ("IT") will have concluded agreements for the purposes of the International Treaty.
The Multilateral System is premised on the principle that benefits accruing from the PGRFAs it covers "shall be shared fairly and equitably through the following mechanisms: the exchange of information, access to and transfer of technology, capacity-building, and the sharing of the benefits arising from commercialization." (25) Contracting Parties undertake to "facilitate access to technologies for the conservation, characterization, evaluation and use" of the PGRFAs that are under the Multilateral System.
He added that the meeting of the Ministerial Conference for the Near East, North Africa and the Five Countries "Brazil, Indonesia, Italy, Norway and Spain" and the meeting of donors to the IT PGRFA will be on Saturday September 21st, 2013 at Al Bustan Palace Hotel in Muscat, and the Fifth Session of the Governing Body of the IT PGRFA will be hosted on September 24th to 28th, 2013 where a number of coordinating and consultative meetings of the territories will be held on the sidelines of this important global event in Muscat during the period from September 22nd to 23rd, 2013.
It is worth mentioning that the Sultanate has ratified its accession to the IT PGRFA as per the Royal Decree No.
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