Just as the report of a potential PHEIC to WHO is meant to be the beginning of a constructive dialogue between states parties and WHO, states parties are obligated to respond to any inquiries from WHO about disease events within their borders within 24 hours, even if those events have otherwise not been reported to WHO.
Although no formal notification of a potential PHEIC was made to WHO, use of the IHR framework enabled all parties involved to better understand and respond to the exposure risk.
In the first example, the first 2 cases of what later became known as influenza A(H1N1)pdm 09 infection were identified at CDC on April 17, 2009, and reported to WHO by the US Department of Health and Human Services as a potential PHEIC the same day (20).
A template for such a standard is provided in an annex to the revised IHR agreement itself, in the form of an algorithm for identifying a potential PHEIC
(see Figure 1).
States have an obligation under Article 10 to verify reports from other sources of an event potentially constituting a PHEIC by sharing certain information with WHO.
Although governments must use the decision instrument to determine whether to notify the WHO of disease events, the existence of a PHEIC is ultimately determined by the Director-General, in consultation with the state concerned and in the case of disagreement, on the advice of a new body called the Emergency Committee (Article 12).
The WHO is to publish guidelines to support the development of public health response capacities, and will offer additional assistance and collaboration in response to public health risks and any PHEIC.
The United States assessed that these cases could be a potential PHEIC (17).
The initial notification by Mexico and the United States of a potential PHEIC within their borders aligns with the following articles of the IHR (2005):
IHR 2005 requires States Parties to provide WHO with "public health information" about events that may constitute a PHEIC
In addition to events that may constitute a PHEIC, IHR 2005 also requires state parties to report the health measures (e.
The central premise of IHR 2005 is that rapidly detecting PHEIC will support improved disease prevention and control both within and between state parties.