Given the regional, cultural, academic and socioeconomic similarities of the PIFT and nonparticipant groups, they can be considered comparable.
PIFT participants were more open to new experiences and demonstrated higher levels of compassion (i.
PIFT participants may represent Plog's (1994) 'allocentric' tourist type, as they are relatively well travelled (<70% have travelled outside of the US), adventurous and value independent thought.
This may explain the high level of leadership experience reported by the PIFT participants.
The PIFT is a highly structured tour, with little free time or choice of activities.
Given the high degree of travel experience and leadership involvement reported by PIFT participants, it is possible that these factors could play a role.
The results provide evidence that the PIFT voluntour participants are a unique clientele and that their trip experiences and/or routine activities contribute to a growing gap in openness, cognition, affection and reflection.
Figure 1 illustrates the nature of the change for PIFT and non-PIFT study participants.
This could be accomplished by visiting family, going to Cancun or by attending the PIFT.