Tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, PIGD are the main motor manifestations of PD patients.
Supplementary Figure 7: forest plot of motor symptoms in LRRK2 G2385R+PD and LRRK2 G2385RPD--(A) tremor, (B) rigidity, (C) bradykinesia, and (D) PIGD. Supplementary Figure 8: forest plot of nonmotor symptoms in LRRK2 G2385R+PD and LRRK2 G2385RPD--(A) MMSE and (B) depression.
 1.82 [+ or -] 0.58 -- 1.76 [+ or -] 0.76 -- Motor symptom Article Tremor Rigidity Bradykinesia PIGD An et al.
Motor decline Most patients with DLB and PDD had postural instability gait difficulty (PIGD
); tremor dominant and PIGD
types evenly distributed in PD group; PIGD
significantly associated with increased cognitive decline.
Some of this variability may be accounted for through univariate correlation analysis demonstrating sex, age, HY stage, UPDRS, TUG, PIGD, FOG, and OLS to be significantly correlated with 6MWD (r = -0.67 to 0.47, p < 0.05).
PIGD, OLS, TUG, FOG, HY, and sex were entered into our stepwise multiple regressions, and TUG, OLS, and sex were identified as significant (p < 0.01) independent contributors to 6MWD, explaining approximately 56.6 percent of the variance.
Abbreviations: 6MWD = 6-minute walk distance, FOG = Freezing of Gait, HY = Hoehn and Yahr, OLS = one-leg stance, PD = Parkinson disease, PIGD = Postural Instability and Gait Disorder, SD = standard deviation, TUG = timed up-and-go (test), UPDRS = Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale.
Finally, results from a multivariate Cox regression model showed that baseline orofacial burden score [HR = 1.10 (95% CI: 1.01-1.20)] was a stronger predictor of hazard of developing UPDRS-Part III > 28 when compared to baseline PIGD score [1.08 (95% CI: 0.92-1.28)].
Interestingly, the single indicator, orofacial burden, showed more promising results in prediction of PD progression compared to the PIGD score at baseline.