PIICSParents Involved in Community Schools (Seattle, WA)
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PIICs expressed feelings of alienation: I feel discriminated against by the government because they really are, I think, putting on so much pressure and sometimes I think it is quite unbearable (PIIC 14).
PIICs reported that they found it difficult to know whom to trust:
In contrast, PIICs rated healthcare professionals' advice to be of little influence.
However, the PIICs often also discounted information from healthcare professionals--traditionally deemed impartial and trustworthy.
Initial contact indicated that responding PIICs felt defensive and threatened.
(19) While many respondents showed distrust of government-provided advice on immunisation, PIICs also distrusted the advice of known healthcare professionals.
I hadn't seen a reaction with anyone else but the first time I had him vaccinated against whooping cough, I couldn't sleep for weeks (PIIC 3).
Criteria for sample selection were that the subjects were between 28 days and 18 years old, had a PIIC utilized as an intermittent heparin lock device for a minimum of 24 hours, and that either a 22- or 24-gauge catheter was used.
For the purposes of the study, however, each of the three patient care units was randomly assigned to a specific flushing interval so that all the nurses on Unit 1 used a flushing interval of 4 hours for each patient with a PIIC catheter; all the nurses on Unit 2 used a 6 hour flushing interval for PIIC patients; and all the nurses on Unit 3 used an 8 hour flushing interval.
Thirty-one children received only heparin through their PIIC sites.
Catheter longevity times for PIIC subjects who received varying numbers of medications were also considered.
Financial costs would be lower with saline and reductions made in the nursing time required to maintain PIIC lines.