PINVPrivate Investigator
PINVPost-Imperative Negative Variations
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Urine ketone dipstick tests are used in the ED to screen for ketonuria in patients with PINV to detect metabolic derangements in the early phases.
Both capillary blood ketone and urine ketone levels were found to be statistically significant for the diagnosis of HG in patients with PINV. The diagnostic accuracy of the capillary blood ketone and urine ketone measurement for HG is shown in Table 1.
Upon examination of a subcategory of PUQE, fingertip blood ketone levels in patients with PINV were statistically significant; statistical data are presented in Table 4.
Other factors implicated in the development of PINV are high levels of oestrogen, hyperthyroidism, progesterone, growth hormone, gastrooesophageal reflux and the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection.
There is some evidence that vestibular inputs modify the emetic response from other stimuli: a history of motion sickness is a risk factor for development of PINV, PONV and CINV.
(3,32) Ginger, at a dose of one gram per day, may also help alleviate nausea but the research evidence to support this is inconclusive, (3) although it appears to be more effective in PINV and CINV than PONV.
The results of ADF and PP unit root tests show that all variables are integrated of order one except PINV and CAD.
We use fiscal deficit as a percent of GDP (FD), Private investment as a percent of GDP (PINV), inflation rate (INF), current account deficit as a percent of GDP (CAD) as explanatory variables in growth equation.
The negative and significant error correction term also indicates that there is a long run relationship among the variables Y, FD, PINV, INF and CAD.
Unlike attenuation of most ERP components, there is an enhanced surface-negative potential (PINV) following a voluntary motor response.
At baseline (drug-naive / drug-free state) and after 1 month of antipsychotic treatment (post-drug state), CNV and PINV recordings were performed once for the control group and twice for the patients.
A Neuropack Sigma 8 software (Nihon Kohden, Japan) was used to record CNV and PINV. The CNV and PINV recordings were undertaken within 1 to 2 hours of food intake (10 am-12 noon, 2-4 pm).