Similarly, nucleotide sequence nonidentity between the PIRV strains from 1994 (i.
Antibody (IgG) against GTOV or PIRV was found in 11 (37.
The end-point antibody titers to GTOV in the antibody-positive cane mice ranged from 40 to 160, none of the cane mice were antibody positive to PIRV, and the end-point antibody titers to GTOV and PIRV in the antibody-positive Alston's cotton rat were 40 and [greater than or equal to] 640, respectively.
9%) of the 13 female Alston's cotton rats in size classes III and IV were infected with PIRV (Table 2).
Similarly, examples of PIRV infection in rodents other than Alston's cotton rats are limited to the isolation of VAV-956 from a short-tailed cane mouse captured on Hato Maporal in 1994 (5) and the isolation of PIRV from 5 short-tailed cane mice and a spiny rat (Proechimys sp.
Yet none of the 57 short-tailed cane mice captured on A or B were infected with PIRV, and only 1 of the 55 Alston's cotton rats captured on A or B was infected with GTOV.
Together, the high prevalence of PIRV infection in the Alston's cotton rats in size class 1 and the lack of an association between prevalence of infection and size class in the Alston's cotton rats suggest that most cotton rats become infected with PIRV at an early age, perhaps in utero or immediately postpartum.
GTOV virus is presumed to be the only agent of VHF; however, the majority of the arenaviruses isolated from VHF patients during September 1989 through December 2006 were identified as strains of GTOV solely on the basis of the results of an IFAT in which extensive cross-reactivity between PIRV and GTOV is possible (5).
Thus, the epidemiology of PIRV infection likely is highly similar to the epidemiology of GTOV infection in Portuguesa, with most infections in persons who live or work in rural areas in Guanarito.