Interestingly, Wellington Hospital's ED audit results from 2016 showed that 84 per cent of those who presented at ED had a PIVC inserted, but only 2.5 per cent had venepuncture.
The PRICT guidelines used in Wellington Hospital's ED pose three questions for health-care professionals to answer before they insert a PIVC:
Assuming a patent PIVC lumen, when aspiration fails there are two mechanisms of failure: (1) blood flow must be restricted or (2) the reservoir is empty peripheral to and/or central to the PIVC.
Upon informed consent, each patient was evaluated by a registered nurse with 5 years of experience in PIVC placement and use.
Large head-to-head trials comparing DOC with PIVC are lacking.
Total drug costs for treatment regimens are lower for DOC than for PIVC. PIVC also requires allocated space, consumables and personnel to administer the infusion.
The bulk of research about PIVCs
to date has been conducted in more economically developed nations.
Given phlebitis can put patients' safety at risk, this study aimed to identify the incidence of phlebitis and its risk factors in patients with PIVCs
Vertigo is an aberrant perception of rotation of self or spatial milieu, and several neuroimaging studies show that regions of the PIVC
are active during the perception of vertigo resulting from caloric  and galvanic  stimulation.
Incidence of local or bloodstream infections (BSIs) associated with PIVCs
is usually low, but they produce considerable morbidity because of the frequency of catheter insertion.