Assuming that the transmitting antenna is located at Tx and the receiving antenna Rx, the terrain elevation data between Tx and Rx in a 2D vertical plane can be easily obtained from the DEM, and according to the PLSM
, the slope over the piecewise linear terrain is given by
In this paper, PLSM which has a lot of geometry information is applied into form finding of arch bridges.
The PLSM with compactly supported radial basis function (CSRBF) [20, 21] which has sufficiently smooth and accurate to approximate the level set function is applied into topology optimization of arch bridge.
Optimization Model Using PLSM. In this optimization model, the interpolated coefficients of CSRBFs are adopted as design variables, optimization model of minimizing the structural compliance under the volume constraint is proposed, and it can be mathematically expressed as follows:
There was an increase by 13.26% for crude protein content and a decrease by 4.27% for crude fibre content from ULSM to PLSM
, respectively (Table 1).
Based on Ali and Son (2007) measurement approach a social opportunity curve and index is calculated for 1998-99 and 2007-08 PLSM data to gauge access to education and employment opportunities.
The calculations presented are based on statistics calculated from datasets provided by PLSM surveys of 1998-99 and 2007-08.
Human Development Index (HDI) comprises of education, health and income of district population based on PLSM