PLSVCPersistent Left Superior Vena Cava
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In this study, we aimed to identify prenatally diagnosed cases of PLSVC in our clinic, to evaluate the associated cardiac, extracardiac, and chromosomal anomalies, and to review their outcomes.
The prevalence of PLSVC is about 0.3% to 0.5% in general population and it is the most common form of anomalous venous drainage involving SVC.1,2 In majority of cases (82-90%) right sided SVC is present.3 With congenital heart diseases its prevalence rises to 5%.
Therefore, we performed femoral venography while revealed LSIVC continuing with PLSVC and both draining into the right atrium (RA) via CS.
Atresia of the CS ostium (ACSO) with a PLSVC is a rare abnormality.[1] This abnormality can occur without clinical symptoms or significant cardiac dysfunction and is usually ignored by clinicians and radiologists.
These echocardiographic findings raised suspicion for a PLSVC. A left-sided intravenous line was in place so a bubble study was attempted.
Echocardiography showed a dilated coronary sinus (CS), suggesting PLSVC, and contrast echocardiography from the left arm vein showed early CS opacification, before the right atrium and right ventricle.
Diagnosis of PLSVC is usually an incidental finding during cardiac surgery for retrograde cardioplegia, left subclavian vein cannulation for theuropathic or monitoring purposes, device implantation or cardiovascular imaging.
Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) showed a dilated coronary sinus (CS) and a PLSVC. Dual chamber permanent pacemaker was considered, and a right subclavian approach was used first.
It is a part of early gold therapy in septic patients to target the physiologic end-points.1,2 The double or persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is a common anomaly in thoracic venous system.
A PLSVC is due to an abnormal development of the sinus venosus in the early stages of fetal life, seen in 0.3-0.5% of the normal population.
TTE in the apical 4-chamber axis demonstrating shows a severely dilated coronary sinus suggestive of a PLSVC PLSVC--persitent left superior vena cava, TTE--transthoracic echocardiography