PMNMPapahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument (Hawaii)
PMNMProgram On Modeling for Negotiation Management
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(130) Ten years later, President Obama drastically expanded the renamed PMNM, citing the diverse ecosystem, the geologic features, the great cultural connection to early Polynesia, and the significance of the area to the Native Hawaiian community.
(152) President Clinton unilaterally established the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve in December 2000, the predecessor to the PMNM. (153) Following the announcement, he directed the NOAA to create a national marine sanctuary in the same area.
(165) After the 2016 PMNM expansion, President Obama urged the secretary of commerce and the NOAA to initiate the national marine sanctuary designation process to extend the current sanctuary to include the expanded PMNM.
In the PMNM withdrawal, based on the Antiquities Act, President Obama recognized the northwestern Hawaiian Islands' distinctive submarine geologic features and diverse ecosystem, "home to many species of coral, fish, birds, [and] marine mammals." (178) He affirmed that preserving this unique marine environment is in the public's interest.
Both the PMNM and Northeast Canyons Monument showcase streamlined management plans, but extra resources would be necessary as federal, state, and local officials are all heavily involved in the national monument designation process.
For example, in the weeks preceding President Obama's PMNM expansion in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Senator Brian Schatz of Hawai'i composed a letter to President Obama urging him to move forward with the withdrawal.
(215) Some fishermen expressed worry about future extensions of the Northeast Canyons Monument's boundaries, just as President Obama expanded the PMNM. (216)
26, 2016) [hereinafter PMNM], For a map of the PMNM expansion, see infra Appendix A.
(94.) See, e.g., Northeast Canyons Monument, supra note 56, at 65, 164-65 (President Obama restricted "exploring for, developing, or producing oil and gas or minerals," "[i]ntroducing or otherwise releasing an introduced species from within or into the monument," "[f]ishing commercially or possessing commercial fishing gear except when slowed," among others); PMNM, supra note 13, at 60,231 (restricting a variety of activities from energy exploration to anchoring vessels on corals).
[2] Reader, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, PMNM Dental College & Hospital Bagalkot
of Orthodontics PMNM Dental College Rajiv Gandhi Health University