PMOA has been used by properly supervised master CP students, trained in this methodology to empower more than 140 organizations, ranging from public administration departments, volunteers and non profit organizations, hospitals, small business firms and schools (Francescato et al.
Then, they do the same using the PMOA schema for an organization of their choice.
To give a empirical contribution to this debate we now describe several studies we conducted to ascertain the comparative efficacy of face-to-face and online learning settings in teaching community profiling, PMOA and empowerment training modalities.
The first aim was to compare the efficacy of face to face and CSCL settings for teaching the three CP methodologies described in the first part of this paper: community profiling, PMOA, and sociopolitical empowerment training.
Both face-to-face and online students gained good competency with PMOA.
If the PMOA approach to combination products is rejected, what alternatives might work better?
143) The European regime also uses the concept of PMOA (in Europe referred to as "principal mode of action") to determine which of these Directives should apply to combination products.
Although the PMOA criterion still applies, the Regulation provides that for any product that "contains viable cells or tissues, the pharmacological, immunological or metabolic action of those cells or tissues shall be considered as the principal mode of action of the product.
Tissue engineered products provide an excellent case study against which to test regulatory approaches like the PMOA criterion, because of the ways in which they exemplify the convergence and interaction of emerging technologies.