PMVNAPure-Mode Vector Network Analyzer (communications)
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Actually, the physical realization of a pure-mode VNA (PMVNA) is rather difficult and, even though some works have been conduced toward its consecution [17,18], current multi-port VNAs implement Bockelman's formulation to display [].
It is also important to notice that the DUT is normally connected to the PMVNA by means of a pair of coupled transmission lines and a ground reference which allows the propagation of differential and common-mode power waves.
Although the normal operation of a PMVNA is the one previously described, the ports [SIGMA] and [DELTA] at the hybrids, where the differential or common-mode load are connected, can be left open or shorted.