PMVNAPure-Mode Vector Network Analyzer (communications)
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It is also important to notice that the DUT is normally connected to the PMVNA by means of a pair of coupled transmission lines and a ground reference which allows the propagation of differential and common-mode power waves.
Although the normal operation of a PMVNA is the one previously described, the ports [SIGMA] and [DELTA] at the hybrids, where the differential or common-mode load are connected, can be left open or shorted.