PNECSPrimary Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin
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Moreover, RB-deficient PNECs expressed a set of genes very similar to those expressed by early-stage SCLC tumors, although they were unable to form tumors when injected into laboratory mice.
However, when they also inhibited the TP53 gene, the PNECs began to express genes that promote cell proliferation and prevent cell death, and cultures containing these PNECs formed slowly growing tumors when injected under the skin of mice.
Dose levels limit such as [LD.sub.50], LOAEL (low observed adverse effect level), NOEL, NOEC, PEC, PNEC and TDI (tolerance daily intake) described in various Tables are of particular importance.
Real monitoring of organotins is of prime importance instead of considering parameters like model environmental fate, PEC or PNEC or TDI.
A549 cells or PNECs were placed onto 96-well plates at a density of 4 x [10.sup.5] cells/mL with various concentrations of 4PBA (0-20 mM) for 72 hours.
To determine whether the blockage of TGF-[beta]1-induced EMT by PBA and PP2 in A549 cells is also seen in nasal tissue, we repeated our experiments in PNECs and inferior turbinate organ cultures.
Hazard quotients (HQs) were calculated for each compound by dividing the measured concentration (MEC) by the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC).
(a) The sum of DDTs was used for MECs, but values for PNEC were derived from effects of p, p -DDE.
For the environmental risk assessment, risk quotients (R[Q.sub.env]) were calculated as suggested by the Technical Guidance Document on Risk Assessment of the European Commission [32], where the measured environmental concentrations (MEC), portrayed in Tables 6 and 7, are evaluated against previously reported PNEC values.
As PNEC is an estimate, a restrictive demarcation of what is "acceptable" or "not acceptable" is not possible for MEC values below or above this parameter, respectively.