Language function of subjects who met the SD, PNFA, or PPA criteria was evaluated using the Japanese Standard Language Test of Aphasia consisting of 26 subtests (listening, speaking, reading, writing, and calculating).
The overlap between the PNFA and navPPA groups is shown in Figure 2b.
Two of the 4 PNFA patients fulfilled the navPPA criteria.
In addition, there were only a small number of patients with PNFA and lvPPA, and behavioural disturbances in these patients were less evident than in patients with SD.
Although the results showed no significant differences between TP and PNFA for the four muscles investigated, one should consider that the P-values were less than 0.1 for BC, LD, and TL muscles.
The PNFA protocol demonstrated a significant improvement in strength performance of the exercise investigated.
Variables TP PNFA Repetitions 9.9 [+ or -] 0.3 10.8 [+ or -] 0.8 * Total Work 598.5 [+ or -] 41.1 653 [+ or -] 62 * (repetitions x kg) Variables Effect size Magnitude P value Repetitions 2.8 Large 0.01 Total Work 1.3 Large 0.01 (repetitions x kg) TP: traditional protocol; PNFA: neuromuscular proprioceptive facilitation on antagonist muscles.