PNKASPediatric Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey
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Nineteen (95%) nurses completed the PNKAS after the education session.
The baseline mean PNKAS score was 27.05 (SD = 4.01, n = 20).
Nurses who participated in professional organizations scored higher on the PNKAS (t = 4.050, p = 0.004).
As in previous studies, the strengths and weaknesses of the nurses in regard to knowledge of pain management were acknowledged by identifying the top 11 questions answered correctly (see Table 5) and the top 10 questions answered incorrectly (see Table 6) by the nurses who took the PNKAS.
The PNKAS assesses nurses' knowledge and attitudes regarding pain and pain management in children, and reflects pediatric pain management standards (Manworren, 2001).
The modified PNKAS consists of 41 items that address general pain management, pain assessment, and the use of both pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment for pain in children.
The PNKAS was readily available online ( with the author's permission for use, requiring only that the results be reported back to the author for further refinement.
Coordinators at each participating hospital were asked to evaluate the PNKAS, item by item, for applicability to their patient populations.
Nurses' individual scores on the PNKAS ranged from 37-100% correct, with a mean of 74%.
The goal of the PNKAS was to identify pediatric nurses' attitudes and knowledge regarding pain.
First, medication dosages were changed in the PNKAS to proportionally smaller dosages for children.
Therefore, the PNKAS was developed as a modification of McCaffery and Ferrell's (1997) Nurses Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (NKAS).