Nineteen (95%) nurses completed the PNKAS after the education session.
It was anticipated in the first aim that knowledge and attitudes about pain would improve after the education session, which was demonstrated by improvement in PNKAS scores.
Nurses who participated in professional organizations scored higher on the PNKAS (t = 4.
As in previous studies, the strengths and weaknesses of the nurses in regard to knowledge of pain management were acknowledged by identifying the top 11 questions answered correctly (see Table 5) and the top 10 questions answered incorrectly (see Table 6) by the nurses who took the PNKAS.
The modified PNKAS consists of 41 items that address general pain management, pain assessment, and the use of both pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment for pain in children.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the reliability and the validity of the Norwegian version of the modified PNKAS (PNKAS-N) in a sample of nurses who work with children in pain.
The PNKAS was readily available online (http://prc.
Coordinators at each participating hospital were asked to evaluate the PNKAS, item by item, for applicability to their patient populations.
Overall, significant differences in PNKAS scores were found among the groups formed by years since graduation from their highest nursing degree (F = 2.
Although years post-graduation, years of nursing experience, and years of pediatric nursing experience were not significantly correlated with PNKAS scores, the 0-2 year groups had significantly lower scores than one or more of the other groups in each of these three categories.
Questions Added to Original Survey: New Procedural Pain Management Questions in PNKAS
is a self-administered, 42-item inventory that includes questions about general pain management, pain assessment, and the use of analgesics and nonpharmacologic interventions for pain.