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The denominators used for the purpose of this study included the following: the numbers of births at the various birthing facilities where the PPIP programme was implemented were used to calculate the PNMR, the ENMR and the NMR; based on the Statistics South Africa (StatsSA) data  and adjusted for subdistrict populations from the SA Medical Research Council burden of disease study,  the births were used to calculate infant and under-five mortality for the subdistricts and Metro West; and the population estimates from Statistics South Africa (Stats SA) were used to calculate the service-related health indicators 
According to the reports of the World Health Organization (WHO), the PNMR is 62[per thousand] in Africa and below 10[per thousand] in Asia (3).
PNMR regarding the birth weight was highest at 1.5 kg, which shows an inverse relationship of PNMR and birth weight of neonates.
Furthermore, significance testing for PNMR of twin 1 and 2 and for stillbirth proportions for monochorionic and dichorionic pregnancies was done by chi square test on proportions.
In this study the perinatal mortality rate was (PNMR) 43/1000 total births, 28 (58.33%, 95% CI 44.38-72.28) were stillbirths, 20 (41.67%, 95% CI 27.72-55.62) were early neonatal deaths.
The company has offered USD350.0m aggregate principal amount of PNMR notes in this offering.
It is also necessary to analyse stillbirth and perinatal mortality rates (PNMRs) regularly to predict whether the Sustainable Development Goals for 2030 will be reached.
 found a PNMR of 5% in patients with T2DM at Groote Schuur Hospital (GSH) in Cape Town, SA.
There is no statistically significant difference in in pnmr in patients delivered vaginally or by lscs in 32 cases (64%) time interval was less than 5 minutes and in 12 cases (24%) time interval was upto 15 minutes.
(1) The meta-analysis by Cheng and Hannah found a 3- to 4-fold significantly higher perinatal mortality rate (PNMR) and neonatal morbidity with planned vaginal delivery (VD) compared with planned caesarean section (CS).
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