The total current I, starting the flow from the anode region 1 p and reaching the cathode region [n.sub.2] is influenced by the integral coefficient of the majority carriers (holes for pnpn
structures and electrons for the npnp structures) injection of junction J1, by the integral transfer coefficient of the minority carriers (holes for pnpn
structures and electrons for the npnp structures) through wide base, and by the avalanche multiplication of charge carriers, taking place in the collector junction at relatively high forward voltages.
Karris covers basic electronic concepts and signals, semiconductor electronics, diodes, bipolar junction transistors, field effect transistors and PNPN
devices, operational amplifiers, integrated circuits, pulse circuits and waveforms generators, frequency characteristics of single-stage and cascaded amplifiers, tuned amplifiers, sinusoidal oscillators, compensated attenuators, and more.
Solid-state crosspoint arrays were first fabricated in 1967 although the use of solid-state four-layer devices (a pnpn
transistor switch, for talking-path switching) had been suggested at Bell Labs in 1956.