Serotype 19A was the predominant serotype in our study during the post-PCV periods and accounted for 20% of isolates and 41% of PNSP during 2010-2011.
CDC reported that 51% of serotype 35B strains causing invasive disease during 1995-2001 were from older patients (>60 years of age) and 69% were PNSP (32).
The occurrence of PNSP in European countries correlated with the country-specific use of penicillins, which explained 61% of the observed variance (p<0.
Differences in the proportion of antimicrobial drug resistance in 21 European countries, 2005, and significant trends, 2001-2005 Antimicrobial drug resistance Europe, %, 2005 Compound- fd pathogent Maximum Minimum ([double (country) (country) dagger]) PNSP 36 (FR) 1.
In Skane County, where PNSP (pneumococci with an MIC for penicillin [greater than or equal to] 0,12 mg/L) have been prevalent for >10 years, the frequency of PNSP in clinical nasopharyngeal cultures (cultures taken at contact tracing excluded) remained of the same level in 2000 to 2001 as in 1995 to 1996, on average, 7.
One of the project's aims was to decrease unnecessary use of antimicrobial agents, especially of macrolides and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, which in studies have been shown to promote spread of PNSP (17,24-27).
The aim of this ecologic study was to correlate outpatient antibiotic consumption with reported rates of PNSP, MRSE and MRGAS in 20 countries on three continents.
PNSP, MRSE and MRGAS were chosen as indicator organistas for those effects.
The merged dataset of ABCs and AHA hospitals contained 104 hospitals: 24 (23%) were in the high PNSP category, 52 (50%) were in the average PNSP category; and 28 (27%) were in the low PNSP category.
However, in areas with high between-laboratory variation in % PNSP, accuracy is difficult to achieve without including most laboratories in the system.
We used an ecologic study design to examine the correlation between use of relevant antibiotics in the outpatient setting and the proportion of PNSP
among invasive isolates of S.
We compared the prevalence of PNSP
at Hospital A with data from the 26 sentinel hospitals that participated in this surveillance system in 1998.